General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade Members

Gatt introduced the most-favoured-nation principle into customs agreements between members. The Uruguay Round of agriculture remains the most important agreement in the history of trade negotiations to liberalize trade in agricultural products. The objective of the agreement was to improve market access for agricultural products, reduce domestic support for agriculture in the form of price-distorting subsidies and quotas, remove export subsidies for agricultural products over time and harmonise sanitary and phytosanitary measures between Member States as much as possible. The average level of tariffs of the major GATT participants was about 22% in 1947. [4] Following the first rounds of negotiations, tariffs within the GATT core of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia were reduced compared to other contracting parties and non-GATT participants. [4] In the Kennedy Round (1962-67), the average level of tariffs of GATT participants was about 15%. [4] After the Uruguay Round, tariffs were below 5%. [4] Most nations have applied the most-favoured-nation principle when setting tariffs, which has largely replaced quotas. Tariffs (which are preferable to quotas but still a barrier to trade) have in turn been steadily reduced in successive rounds of negotiations. Unlike the ITO Charter, gatt did not require Congressional approval.

This is due to the fact that the GATT was technically an agreement in accordance with the provisions of the U.S. Reciprocal Trade Act 1934. To some extent, this view has been shared in Europe, but the process of European unification has created its own burdens, of which the Kennedy Round has temporarily become a secondary priority for the EEC. The French veto of January 1963, even before the start of the round, on the accession of the United Kingdom was an example of this. A common market is a first step towards an internal market and may initially be limited to a free trade area with relatively free capital and services, but less advanced in reducing other barriers to trade. The fifth round was held again in Geneva and lasted from 1960 to 1962. The discussions are named after U.S. Treasury Secretary and former Under Secretary of State Douglas Dillon, who first proposed the discussions. Twenty-six countries participated in the round. In addition to reducing tariffs by more than $4.9 billion, this has also led to discussions on the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC).

Like Article XX of the GATT, the preamble to the TBT Convention recognizes the right of Members to take the necessary measures to achieve a number of policy objectives such as „the quality of its exports, the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, the environment or the prevention of fraudulent practices at the level of the latter; which it considers appropriate”. Among the original GATT members, Syria[19][20] Lebanon[21] and SFR Yugoslavia did not join the WTO. Since the FRYY (renamed Serbia and Montenegro and divided in two by subsequent accession negotiations) is not recognised as the direct successor State to the SFRJ; This is why its application is considered a new application (not GATT). On 4 May 2010, the WTO General Council agreed to establish a working group to examine Syria`s application for WTO membership. [22] [23] On 31 December 1995, the parties that created the WTO terminated the formal agreement on the terms of the GATT 1947. . . .