These include the process of worker unionization, the management of negotiations and the interpretation of collective agreements on wages, working time and other conditions of workers who invoke dispute resolution procedures in concerted economic measures. In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in the Texas – N.O.R. Co. Brotherhood of Railway Clerks case, upholding the prohibition of employers` involvement in the selection of negotiators.  In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order that gives public employee unions the right to bargain collectively with federal authorities.  There are 5 main types of collective bargaining1. Distribution negotiations2. Integrative trading3. Productivity negotiations4. Bargaining Composite5.
Finally, it should be noted that the gender pay gap depends on a large number of political and institutional factors, most of which are not focused on the goals of gender equality. In particular, wage negotiations and employment policies can influence the size of the gender pay gap by influencing outcomes such as wage dispersion. Trends away from centralized and regulated forms of wage bargaining are therefore worrisome, as they can increase dispersion, which in turn can jeopardize the benefits of equal pay or comparable value strategies. In short, the search for pay equity cannot be limited to a single agenda, but requires several policies and, like most efforts to attempt significant social change, it will take a long time to achieve this. This is also known as collective bargaining, since both parties ultimately agree to follow a decision that they will reach after many negotiations and discussions. The right to collective bargaining is recognized by international human rights conventions. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the ability to organize fundamental human rights unions.  Point 2 (a) of the International Labour Organization`s statement on fundamental principles and rights in the workplace defines „freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining” as an essential worker`s right.  The 1948 Convention on Freedom of Association and the Protection of the Right to Organization (C087) and several other conventions protect collective bargaining in particular by creating international labour standards that deter countries from violating workers` right to co-association and collective bargaining.  Collective bargaining therefore includes the negotiation, management, interpretation, application and application of written agreements between employers and unions that represent their employees and provide for a common understanding of wages, wages, working hours and other conditions of employment.